Biophilic Design in Architecture and Its Contributions to Health, Well-being, and Sustainability: A Critical Review
In the last ten years, ‘nature’ and biophilic design have received widespread attention in architecture, especially in response to growing environmental challenges. However, open questions and controversies remain regarding conceptualizing and addressing ‘nature’ in practice and research. This study conducts a literature review to discuss biophilic design as a theoretical framework to interpret ‘nature’ in architecture. The following questions are answered: (1) How has the concept of biophilic design emerged, and how can it be defined? (2) In what ways can biophilic design contribute to the goals of sustainable architecture? (3) What are the key design strategies in biophilic design? This review identifies and compares the key frameworks of biophilic design and explains their major elements. We then analyse the benefits (e.g., enhance health, well-being, productivity, biodiversity, and circularity) of biophilic design in achieving sustainability, as framed through the UN Sustainable Development Goals.